Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Size, Share, Growth & Trends Analysis Report By Service Providers (Public, Private) By Type (Domestic, International) And Regional Outlook, Growth Potential & Forecast 2023 – 2030

Loading...

Summary of Report:

Global Inbound Medical Tourism market size was worth USD 4.8 billion in 2023 and is expected to grow to USD 43.7 billion in 2030 with a CAGR of 32.9 % in 2023-2030. 

Price

$2,999.00
$3,999.00
$8,999.00

Do You have any Budget constraints?
Simply Ask our Sales Team About it.

Loading...

Description

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Description

Global Inbound Medical Tourism market size was worth USD 4.8 billion in 2023 and is expected to grow to USD 43.7 billion in 2030 with a CAGR of 32.9 % in 2023-2030.

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Overview

The term “medical tourism” describes the practice of people going abroad for medical care or services. Patients traveling to a particular nation for medical treatment are part of the global inbound medical tourism market.

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Covid-19 Impact

The medical tourism industry has been profoundly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical tourism has decreased as a result of travel restrictions, lockdowns, and worries about the virus’s potential to spread. Healthcare services accessibility may be impacted by patients’ reluctance to travel for non-essential medical procedures and destination countries’ implementation of stringent measures to contain the pandemic.

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Growth Drivers

  1. Care Quality: Patients looking for better healthcare alternatives are drawn to certain nations because of their reputation for offering top-notch medical services and cutting-edge therapies.
  2. Technological Advancements: Medical tourism in some countries may be fueled by access to state-of-the-art medical procedures and technologies.
  3. Globalization of Healthcare: Patients can now more easily research treatment options around the world thanks to increased awareness and communication ease.

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Restraining factors

  1. Travel Restrictions: Patients’ ability to travel across borders may be restricted by political, economic, or health-related reasons.
  2. Quality Concerns: Patients may be reluctant to seek treatment abroad due to worries about the caliber of medical care provided in other nations.
  3. Insurance Coverage: Potential medical tourists may find it difficult to obtain international treatment due to limited insurance coverage.

Opportunity Factors

  1. Government Support: The development of medical tourism can be aided by the destination nations’ supportive laws and programs.
  2. Marketing and Promotion: By using efficient marketing techniques, healthcare facilities and services can draw in more foreign patients.
  3. Specialized Medical Services: A destination can attract more medical tourists if it offers distinctive or specialized medical services.

Challenges

  1. Ethical Concerns: There may be ethical problems with medical tourism, such as organ trafficking and care quality.
  2. Legal and Regulatory Issues: Healthcare laws vary from nation to nation, and it can be difficult for patients and healthcare providers to navigate these legal complexities.
  3. Communication Barriers: Patients and healthcare professionals may find it difficult to communicate due to language barriers.

SGlobal Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Segmentation

By Service Providers the market is segmented into Public, Private. This segment includes medical services provided by public or government-owned healthcare institutions. These could be hospitals, clinics, or healthcare facilities that are funded and operated by the government. Patients availing services from public providers may have different considerations, such as cost and accessibility. Private This segment comprises medical services offered by private healthcare institutions. Private hospitals, clinics, and healthcare providers may be owned and operated by private entities. Patients choosing private providers might prioritize factors like quality of care, specialized treatments, and personalized services.

By Type, the market is segmented into Domestic and international. Domestic This segment involves medical tourism within the same country. Patients travel within their own country to seek medical treatment, either due to cost considerations, availability of specialized services, or regional disparities in healthcare infrastructure. Domestic medical tourism is influenced by factors specific to the internal healthcare landscape of a country.

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Regional Insights

1. Asia-Pacific:

Some countries in the Asia-Pacific region, such as India, Thailand, and Singapore, have become major hubs for medical tourism. The availability of high-quality healthcare services, advanced medical technologies, and cost advantages are significant drivers in this region. Regulatory and legal frameworks may vary across countries, and concerns about the quality of healthcare in certain destinations could pose challenges. Language barriers may also be a consideration.

2. Europe:

European countries with renowned healthcare systems and medical expertise may attract medical tourists seeking specialized treatments or procedures. Stringent healthcare standards in many European nations contribute to the overall appeal. The high cost of healthcare in some European countries may be a deterrent for price-sensitive medical tourists. Travel restrictions and diverse healthcare systems may also present challenges.

3. North America:

Countries like the United States and Canada are known for their advanced medical technologies and highly specialized healthcare services. Medical tourists might seek specific treatments not readily available in their home countries. The high healthcare costs in the United States, in particular, may lead some patients to explore more cost-effective options abroad. However, regulatory and insurance-related challenges could be significant.

4. Middle East and Africa:

Some countries in the Middle East, such as the United Arab Emirates, have been investing in healthcare infrastructure and promoting medical tourism. Access to modern medical facilities and a focus on wellness and medical tourism can drive growth. Political instability and regional conflicts in certain areas may impact the attractiveness of the region for medical tourism. Infrastructure and regulatory issues can also be challenges.

5. Latin America:

Latin American countries may attract medical tourists due to the lower cost of healthcare services, proximity to North America, and the availability of some specialized treatments. Quality assurance, language barriers, and concerns about healthcare standards may be factors that impact the growth of medical tourism in this region.

Competitive Landscape

Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market: Recent Developments

HCA Healthcare’s telehealth platform: Streamlines international patient consultations and post-operative care, enhancing convenience for medical tourists.

DocsApp’s expansion into Southeast Asia: Provides medical tourists with on-demand doctor consultations and appointment bookings, easing accessibility.

Chiva Som’s focus on wellness tourism: Combines medical treatments with holistic wellness programs, attracting health-conscious travelers.

Bumrungrad Hospital’s expertise in robotic surgery: Positions Thailand as a destination for advanced medical procedures at competitive costs.

Table of Content

1 Executive Summary
1.1 Summary
2 Premium Insights
2.1 Growth Lens Perspective of CXO’s on the Market
2.2 Untapped Revenue Opportunities
2.3 Top Investment Pockets
2.4 Insights From Expert Interviews
2.5 Market Scenarios: Pessimistic vs. Optimistic vs. Realistic
2.6 Absolute Market Opportunity
2.7 Takeaways and Strategic Conclusions
2.8 Revenue Shift
3 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Process
3.2 Primary Research
3.3 Secondary Research
3.4 Market Size Estimation
3.5 Research Methodology
3.6 Analyst Tools/Models/Techniques
3.06.01 Notations
3.7 Market Scope & Segmentation
3.8 Currency & Pricing Considered
4 Market Trends
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Drivers
4.02.01 Driver 1
4.02.02 Driver 2
4.02.03 Driver 3
4.02.04 Driver 4
4.3 Restraints
4.03.01 Restraint 1
4.03.02 Restraint 2
4.4 Opportunities
4.04.01 Opportunity 1
4.04.02 Opportunity 2
4.5 Investment Feasibility Analysis
4.6 Latest Trends
5 Market Assessment
5.1 Porters Five Forces Analysis
5.01.01 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
5.01.02 Bargaining Power of Buyers
5.01.03 Threat of New Entrants
5.01.04 Threat of Substitute
5.01.05 Intensity of Competitive Rivalry
5.2 Value Chain Analysis
5.3 Market Share Analysis
5.4 Impact of Key Regulations on the Market
5.5 SWOT Analysis
5.6 PESTEL Analysis
5.7 Patent Analysis
5.07.01 By Innovator
5.07.02 By Applicant
5.07.03 By Country
5.8 Roadmap Development
5.9 Market Lineage Outlook
5.09.01 Parent Market Outlook
5.09.02 Ancillary Market Outlook
6 Impact of Recession on the Market
6.1 Introduction
6.01.01 Short Term Impact
6.01.02 Long Term Impact
7 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, By Service
7.1 Introduction
7.01.01 Market Size & Forecast
7.01.02 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service -2023 and 2031 (%)
7.2 Medical Treatment
7.02.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.02.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.3 Cosmetic Treatment
7.03.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.03.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.4 Alternative Treatment
7.04.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.04.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.5 TypeB4
7.05.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.05.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.6 TypeB5
7.06.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.06.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.7 TypeB6
7.07.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.07.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.8 TypeB7
7.08.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.08.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
7.9 TypeB8
7.09.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
7.09.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, By Service Provider
8.1 Introduction
8.01.01 Market Size & Forecast
8.01.02 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2023 and 2031 (%)
8.2 Public
8.02.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.02.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.3 Private
8.03.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.03.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.4 ProductB3
8.04.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.04.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.5 ProductB4
8.05.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.05.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.6 ProductB5
8.06.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.06.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.7 ProductB6
8.07.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.07.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.8 ProductB7
8.08.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.08.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
8.9 ProductB8
8.09.01 Key market Trends, Growth Factors, and Opportunities
8.09.02 Market Size and Forecast, by Regions
9 North America Market Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country
9.02.01 North America Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
9.3 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
9.4 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
9.5 U.S.
9.05.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
9.05.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
9.6 Canada
9.06.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
9.06.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10 Europe Market Analysis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country
10.02.01 Europe Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
10.3 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.4 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.5 Germany
10.05.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.05.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.6 France
10.06.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.06.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.7 U.K
10.07.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.07.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.8 Italy
10.08.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.08.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.9 Spain
10.09.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.09.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.1 Benelux
10.10.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.10.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
10.11 Rest of Europe
10.11.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
10.11.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11 Asia-Pacific Market Analysis
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country
11.02.01 Asia Pacific Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
11.3 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.4 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.5 China
11.05.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.05.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.6 India
11.06.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.06.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.7 Japan
11.07.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.07.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.8 Australia
11.08.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.08.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.9 South Korea
11.09.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.09.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.1 Southeast Asia
11.10.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.10.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
11.11 Rest of Asia Pacific
11.11.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
11.11.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
12 Latin America and the Caribbean Market Analysis
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country
12.02.01 Latin America Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
12.3 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
12.4 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
12.5 Brazil
12.05.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
12.05.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
12.6 Mexico
12.06.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
12.06.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
12.7 Rest of Latin America
12.07.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
12.07.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
13 The Middle East and Africa Market Analysis
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country
13.02.01 MEA Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
13.3 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
13.4 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
13.5 South Africa
13.05.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
13.05.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
13.6 Saudi Arabia
13.06.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
13.06.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
13.7 UAE
13.07.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
13.07.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
13.8 Rest of MEA
13.08.01 Market Size & Forecast, by Service
13.08.02 Market Size & Forecast, by Service Provider
14 Competitive Landscape
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Market Player Positioning, 2022
14.3 Company Evaluation Matrix
14.4 Product Mapping of Top 10 Player
14.5 Market Opportunities and Future Trends
14.6 Competitive Heatmap
14.7 Top Winning Growth Strategies
14.07.01 Major Growth Strategies
14.07.02 Expansion
14.07.03 Merger and Acquisition
14.07.04 Other Developments
15 Company Profiles
15.1 COMPANY 1
15.01.01 Company Overview
15.01.02 Key Executives
15.01.03 Financial Overview
15.01.04 Business Segment Analysis
15.01.05 Product Portfolio
15.01.06 Key Strategic Developments
15.2 Company 2
15.3 Company 3
15.4 Company 4
15.5 Company 5
15.6 Company 6
15.7 Company 7
15.8 Company 8
15.9 Company 9
15.1 Company 10
15.11 Company 11
15.12 Company 12
15.13 Company 13
15.14 Company 14
15.15 Company 15
15.16 Others
16 APPENDIX
16.1 DISCUSSION GUIDE
16.2 Company Outlook

Tables and Figures

List of Table

Table 1 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Industry Snapshot, 2022-2031
Table 2 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 3 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for Medical Treatment, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 4 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for Cosmetic Treatment, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 5 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for Alternative Treatment, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 6 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for TypeB4, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 7 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for TypeB5, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 8 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for TypeB6, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 9 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for TypeB7, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 10 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for TypeB8, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 11 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider Size-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 12 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for Public, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 13 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for Private, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 14 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB3, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 15 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB4, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 16 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB5, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 17 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB6, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 18 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB7, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 19 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market for ProductB8, by REgion-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 20 North America Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
Table 21 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 22 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 23 U.S. Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 24 U.S. Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 25 Canada Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 26 Canada Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 27 Europe Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
Table 28 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 29 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 30 Germany Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 31 Germany Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 32 Asia Pacific Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
Table 33 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 34 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 35 China Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 36 China Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 37 Latin America Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
Table 38 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 39 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 40 Brazil Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 41 Brazil Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 42 MEA Inbound Medical Tourism Market by Country, USD Million 2019-2031
Table 43 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 44 Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 45 South Africa Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 46 South Africa Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2019-2031 (USD Million)
Table 47 key EXPANSIONS (2019-2022)
Table 48 key Mergers and acquisition (2019-2022)
Table 49 Other key developments (2019-2022)

List of Figure

Figure 1 Regional Analysis (2022 & 2031)
Figure 2 CXO Perspective
Figure 3 Untapped Revenue Opportunities
Figure 4 Growth Pipeline Funnel
Figure 5 Top investment pockets
Figure 6 Insights From Expert Interviews
Figure 7 Insights From Expert Interviews
Figure 8 Market Scenarios: Pessimistic vs. Optimistic vs. Realistic
Figure 9 Absolute Market Opportunity (2023-2031)
Figure 10 Strategic Findings of the Market
Figure 11 Research Process
Figure 12 Analysis Framework
Figure 13 Impact of Key Regulation on the Market
Figure 14 SWOT Analysis
Figure 15 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service -2023 & 2031 (USD Million)
Figure 16 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by Medical Treatment-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 17 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by Cosmetic Treatment-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 18 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by Alternative Treatment-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 19 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by TypeB4-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 20 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by TypeB5-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 21 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by TypeB6-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 22 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by TypeB7-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 23 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by TypeB8-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 24 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market Share, by Service Provider -2023 & 2031 (USD Million)
Figure 25 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by Public-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 26 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by Private-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 27 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB3-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 28 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB4-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 29 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB5-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 30 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB6-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 31 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB7-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 32 Global Inbound Medical Tourism Market, by ProductB8-2019-2031 (USD Million)
Figure 33 Market Player Positioning, 2022
Figure 34 Company Evaluation Matrix
Figure 35 PRODUCT MAPPING OF TOP 10 PLAYERS
Figure 36 Competitive Heatmap of Key Players

Frequently Asked Questions

  • First off, what is health tourism?

    The term "medical tourism" describes the practice of people going to another nation for medical care or other healthcare services. This can cover a broad spectrum of medical procedures, including specialized treatments and elective surgeries.
  • What elements support the market for incoming medical tourism growth?

    The availability of specialized medical services, cost savings, high-quality care, access to cutting-edge medical technologies, and globalization of healthcare are some of the factors driving the growth of the inbound medical tourism market.
  • What is the market segmentation for incoming medical tourism

    The answer is that the market is frequently divided into two categories: Type (Domestic and International) and Service Providers (Public and Private). By using service provider segmentation, public and private healthcare institutions are distinguished from one another. Travel to a foreign country (International) and medical tourism within the same nation (Domestic) are distinguished by type segmentation.
  • How has COVID-19 affected the worldwide market for incoming medical tourism?

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a notable effect on the medical tourism sector. Medical tourism has decreased as a result of travel restrictions, lockdowns, and worries about the virus's potential to spread. For non-essential medical procedures, patients might be reluctant to travel, and the destination nation might impose stringent regulations that would limit access to healthcare services.